Land reclamation is one of the most consequential fields of human induced environmental transformation.
It has following environmental consequences:
Damage to water ecology: Urban land transformation leads to creation of residential, commercial buildings, causing degradation of water ecology. For example, Dal Lake in Sri Nagar.
Increased incidence of flooding: Water bodies act as sponges for extra rainfall, reclamation of water bodies, has led to higher incidences of floods. For example in Mumbai, which lost 71% of its wetlands.
Species extinction: Land reclamation of Hussain Sagar Lake in Telangana, have increased the BOD. It is detrimental for not only aquatic species but also for aerial fauna.
Drinking water pollution: Encroachment of water bodies lead to concentration of harmful chemicals. For example, encroachment of water bodies in West Bengal led to Arsenic pollution.
Environmental hazards: Water reclamation for urban land use in the coastal areas may aggravate the incidents of earthquakes etc.
Water bodies play an important part in sustaining the ecology. In this light their conservation through waste water treatment, non-encroachment, is necessary.