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India is one of the few countries where capital punishment is legal and is justified under the rarest of the rare doctrine. However, it is not just the execution in principle but the process of execution which matters. Discuss (10 Marks) ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA-DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS


Test-I: English Language

Directions (Q. 1-10):
Which of the phrases given against the sentences should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, select ‘No correction required’ as the answer

1. The presence of new players in the basketball team is to additionally attract for the audience.

  1. with add attraction     
  2. for adding attractive
  3. an added attraction
  4. of adding attraction
  5. No correction required

2. The dire need of amusement to escaping boredom made him cultivate various hobbies.

  1. to escape boredom     
  2. as escaping boredom
  3. escapes bored
  4. for escape being bored
  5. No correction required

3. We were credibly informed that the conman has gave himself to the police.

  1. given over
  2. given himself in
  3. given himself over
  4. given himself up
  5. No correction required

4. We tempted Karen with many promises but nothing would worked her up.

  1. working with her 
  2. works her over
  3. works upon her
  4. work on her
  5. No correction required

5. The soil of India saw growths of one of the oldest cultures in थे world that is the Harappan Civilisation.

  1. seen the growth   
  2. saw the growth
  3. had saw growing
  4. see the growths
  5. No correction required

6. A renowned organization has recent appointed a highly acclaimed scientist to head new research and development assistants.

  1. recently appointed     
  2. a recent appointed
  3. is to appoint         
  4. to recently appointed an
  5. No correction required

7. The serene lush green slope of the hill station make it up ideal venue for the meditation camp.

  1. making so ideal
  2. is ideal for
  3. makes it an ideal
  4. as of ideal
  5. No correction required

8. Taking good care of yourself is paramount for succession of your goals,

  1. about being a success
  2. to the success
  3. about being successful
  4. to succeed
  5. No correction required

9. The tambourine to gain popularity in the mid-18th century in Western Europe as an orchestral instrument.

  1. was been popular
  2. have popularity
  3. has being popular
  4. gained popularity
  5. No correction required

10. Varun advised Aman that give off wrong pleasure is not self- sacrifice but self-culture.

  1. gave up 
  2. gives
  3. giving through
  4. giving up
  5. No correction required away

Directions (Q. 11-20): Read the following passage and answer the given questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There is a market failure in cyber security. Solutions being suggested or tried include increasing transparency about data losses, helping consumers and firms to make more informed decisions about cyber security; shedding more light on how internet service providers (ISPs) tackle malware infections they spot on customers’ computers; and using liability laws to force software companies to produce safer code. On transparency, America has led the way. Almost all American states now have data-breach laws that require firms to reveal any loss of sensitive customer information. In Europe telecom firms have been obliged to notify customers of breaches for some time now, and there are plans to extend reporting to a wider range of industries.

Breach laws have encouraged insurance companies to offer coverage against potential losses. This is helpful because they are in a position to gather and share information about best practices across a wide range of companies. A cyber-insurer advises companies on defensive tactics, and also on how to minimise the damage if something goes wrong. The American government should create a cyber-equivalent of the National Transportation Safety Board, which investigates serious accidents and shares information about them. Such a body could look into all breaches that cost over $50m and make sure the lessons are shared widely. But insurers are likely to remain wary of taking on broader risks because the costs associated with a serious cyber-incident could be astronomic. Insurers can deal with acts of God, but not with acts of Anonymous (hacking groups or acts of state sponsored hacking ) This explains why the overall cyber insurance market is still small. Governments are weighing in too, not least by supporting private sector efforts to clean up botnets”, or networks of compromised computers controlled by hackers. These networks, which are prevalent in countries such as America and China, can be used to launch attacks and spread malware. In Germany an initiative called Bot-Frei, which helps people clean up their infected computers, received government support to get started, though it is now self-financing. The American government has also worked closely with private firms to bring down large botnets. Another strategy involves issuing standards to encourage improved security. America’s National Institute of Standards and Technology published a set of voluntary guidelines for companies in critical infrastructure sectors such as energy and transport. Britain has also launched a scheme called “cyber-essentials” under which firms can apply for a certificate showing they comply with certain minimum security standards. Applicants undergo an external audit and, if successful, are awarded a badge which they can use on marketing materials. Whether governments are best placed to set minimum standards is debatable, but they have certainly raised awareness of cyber security as an issue that needs attention. They could also help to get more information into the public domain. Researchers have argued persuasively that collecting and publishing data about the quantity of spam and other bad traffic handled by ISPs could encourage the worst performers to do more to tackle the problem, thus improving overall security.

Another debate has revolved around getting software companies to produce code with fewer flaws in it. One idea is to make them liable for damage caused when, say, hackers exploit a weakness in a software program. Most software companies currently insist customers accept end-user licensing agreements that specifically protect firms from legal claims unless local laws prohibit such exclusions. The snag is that imposing blanket liability could have a chilling effect on innovation. Companies that are selling millions of copies of programmes might take fright at the potential exposure and leave the business. Strict liability be applied only to firms which produce software that cannot be patched if a security flaw is found. There is quite a lot of that sort of code around.

11. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word BROADER as used in the passage?

  1.  spacious     
  2. subtle
  3. weaker
  4. comprehensive
  5. approximate

12. Which of the following is/are the argument(s) in favour of cyber -essentials?

(A) It boosts transparency and promotion of firms.

(B) The certification is given by hackers which makes it authentic.

(C) Firms benefit from paying attention to cyber. security and so do users,

  1. Only (A)
  2. Only (B)   
  3. Only (A) & (C)        
  4. Only (B) & (C)           
  5. All (A). (B) & (C)

13. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word TRIED as used in the passage?

  1. convicted         
  2. accused     
  3. attempted
  4. exasperated   
  5. None of the given options

14. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word SERIOUS as used in the passage?

  1. genuine
  2. witty     
  3. noisy
  4. insignificant     
  5. irresistible

15. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word CHILLING as used in the passage?

  1. promoting   
  2. reassuring   
  3. encouraging
  4. fostering       
  5. All the given options

16. Which of the following best describes the author’s view of liability laws?

  1. These will act as incentives for computer firms to produce more secure software.
  2. These are pointless as they cannot be uniformly or strictly implemented.
  3. These will not greatly impact computer firms as the financial profits from software are huge.
  4. These are not an appropriate approach to cyber security
  5. None of the given options

17. Which of the following can be said about governments’ efforts with regard to cyber security?

(A) Governments’ efforts have been coupled with private sector co- operation.

(B) Governments’ efforts have been focused on destroying botnet infrastructure.

(C) These are not worthwhile and too small in magnitude.

  1. Only (A)       
  2. Only (B)         
  3. Only (B) and (C)
  4. Only (C)       
  5. Only (A) and (B)

18. Why has the author mentioned the National Transportation Safety Board in the passage?

(A) To urge America to set up a body to share data in cyber-related instances

(B) To monitor cyber security episodes whose losses are over a certain sum

(C) To publish and enforce standards for cyber security for sectors like energy

  1. Only (A)         
  2. Only (A) & (B)   
  3. Only (B)
  4. Only (B) & (C)     
  5. All (A),(B) & (C)

19. Which of the following is/are (the) theme(s) of the passage?

  1. Holding cyber firms accountable for flaws in their products
  2. Cyber-crime infrastructure in certain countries
  3. Ways to secure cyber-space
  4. Limits of cyber-insurance
  5. All the given options are themes

20. Which of the following is/are true in the context of the?

  1. Breach laws Passage can be helpful for organisations.
  2. America is leading the way in terms of laws for disclosure of cyber- reaches.
  3. Pressure is increasing on software companies to produce safer products.
  4. Varied efforts are being made to create a market which values cyber-security.
  5. All the given options are true in the context of the

Directions (Q. 21-30):
In the given passage there are words highlighted in bold and underlined. You have to decide if the word given is correct (in terms of grammar and context). If not, find out the appropriate word group of words from the given options. In case, the suggested word is correct, mark the option ‘The given word is correct as your answer.

Everyone knows that (21) sustenance brainboxes is good for an economy. In Thailand, school reformers have an extra incentive to narrow (22) contrasting between rich people in cities and their poorer rural cousins, which have (23) fulfilled to a decade of political tension and occasional eruptions of violence. For years shoddy teaching has favoured urban children whose parents can afford to send them to cramming schools or to study abroad. Dismal instruction in the countryside has made it easier for city slickers from posh colleges to paint their political opponents as pliable bumpkins.

The dangerous social divide is all the more reason to (24) worry about Thailand’s poor rating in an educational league table published in December. Thailand limped into the bottom quarter of 70 countries whose pupils participated in the mathematics, reading and science tests organised under the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Its scores have (25) crushed since a previous assessment in 2012, when researchers found that almost one-third of the country’s 15-year-olds were “functionally illiterate”, including almost half of those studying in rural schools.

Thailand’s (26) error performance is not dramatically out of step with countries of similar incomes. But it is strange given its unusually generous (27) allocation on education, which in some years has hoovered up more than a quarter of the budget. Rote learning is common. There is a shortage of maths and science teachers, but a (28) overflow of physical-education instructors. Many head teachers lack the authority to hire or fire their own staff. A big problem is that Thailand spends too much money propping up small schools, where teaching is the poorest. Almost half of Thai schools have fewer than 120 students, and most of those have less than one teacher per class. Opening lots of village schools once helped Thailand (29) achieve impressive attendance rates, but road-building and other improvements in infrastructure mean most schools are now within 20 minutes of another. Over the next ten years falling birth rates will reduce school rolls by more than 1m, making it ever more (30) fulfilled for tiny institutions to provide adequate instruction at a reasonable cost.

21.    1) diluting        2) nurturing    3) alleviating     4) ornamental 

         5) The given word is correct

22.    1) contract        2) characteristic        3) distinct      4) differences   

         5) The given word is correct

23.     1) preceded        2) managed     3) compelled    4) led

  5) The given word is correct

24.    1) concern        2) apprehension     3) fearful    4) distress

         5) The given word is correct

25.     1) deteriorated    2) sink     3) decomposed        4) declining

          5) The given word is correct

26.     1) extreme        2) cheerful     3) dismal        4) inauspicious

          5) The given word is correct

27.     1) employed    2) investing     3) spending    4) setting

          5) The given word is correct

28.     1) satiety        2) surplus with     3) saturated    4) surfeit

          5) The given word is correct

29.     1) complete    2) conclude     3) acquired    4) adhere

          5) The given word is correct

30.    1) difficult        2) ambition     3) troubling     4) doubtful

          5) The given word is correct


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