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Briefly explain the major provisions of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021. Also, highlight the social media intermediaries’ concerns regarding these rules After 62 years of signing the Indus waters treaty, India has moved to amend this treaty with Pakistan. Discuss the reasons for this pathbreaking intention of India to modify the treaty with implications on India-Pakistan relations further.

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1. The list of duties is not exhaustive as it does not cover other important duties like casting vote, paying taxes, family planning and so on.

2. Some of the duties are vague, ambiguous and difficult to be understood by the common man.

3. They have been described by the critics as a code of moral precepts due to their non-justiciable character.

4. Their inclusion in the Constitution was described by the critics as superfluous because the duties included in the Constitution as fundamental would be performed by the people even though they were not incorporated in the Constitution.

5. The critics said that the inclusion of fundamental duties as an appendage to Part IV of the Constitution has reduced their value and significance.

▪︎M. Laxmikanth

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