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Briefly explain the major provisions of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021. Also, highlight the social media intermediaries’ concerns regarding these rules After 62 years of signing the Indus waters treaty, India has moved to amend this treaty with Pakistan. Discuss the reasons for this pathbreaking intention of India to modify the treaty with implications on India-Pakistan relations further.


1. Constitution provides for its amendment in order to adjust itself to the changing conditions and needs.

2. Procedure laid down for its amendment is neither as easy as in Britain nor as difficult as in USA. In other words, the Indian Constitution is neither flexible nor rigid but a synthesis of both.

3. Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure.

4. It states that the Parliament may, in exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down for the purpose.

5. However, the Parliament cannot amend those provisions which form the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution. This was ruled by the Supreme Court in the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973).

▪︎SOURCE – M. Laxmikanth

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