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Briefly explain the major provisions of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021. Also, highlight the social media intermediaries’ concerns regarding these rules After 62 years of signing the Indus waters treaty, India has moved to amend this treaty with Pakistan. Discuss the reasons for this pathbreaking intention of India to modify the treaty with implications on India-Pakistan relations further.


1. They serve as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their rights, they should also be conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow citizens.

2. They serve as a warning against the anti-national and anti-social activities like burning the national flag, destroying public property and so on.

3. They serve as a source of inspiration for the citizens and promote a sense of discipline and commitment among them.

4. They help the courts in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law.

5. They are enforceable by law. Hence, the Parliament can provide for the imposition of appropriate penalty or punishment for failure to fulfil any of them.

▪︎SOURCE – M. Laxmikanth.

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